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Post Info TOPIC: Prelude ocean-based LNG plant


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Prelude ocean-based LNG plant
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Prelude ocean-based LNG plant, ship building technology for seasteads, 5 years permanence limit, cyclon 5 at anchor, torret mooring, oceanic factories, cooling water from the ocean, oceanic is more economic than land, maximum size of  a single project 400m.



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Shell’s massive Prelude hull world’s biggest-ever floating vessel and first ocean-based LNG plant

Reuters and Associated Press | December 3, 2013 | Last Updated: Dec 3 6:16 PM ET

Shell said Tuesday that the 488-meter (1,600 foot) hull of the structure, known as “Prelude,” was floated out of the dry dock in Geoje, South Korea where it is being built.
Seokyong Lee/ Royal Dutch ShellShellShell said Tuesday that the 488-meter (1,600 foot) hull of the structure, known as “Prelude,” was floated out of the dry dock in Geoje, South Korea where it is being built.

Royal Dutch Shell PLC says it has completed building the hull of the world’s largest floating facility, which has been constructed to process natural gas off the coast of western Australia.

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Shell said Tuesday that the 488-meter (1,600 foot) hull of the structure, known as “Prelude,” was floated out of the dry dock in Geoje, South Korea where it is being built.

With a bow and stern half a kilometre apart, four football pitches would fit on the vessel’s deck were it not for a clutter of kit towering up to 93 metres high that will take in the equivalent of 110,000 barrels of oil per day in natural gas and cool it into liquefied natural gas for transport and sale in Asia. It will float above gas fields.

Shell says it can remain in place through a category 5 cyclone.

Construction began last year, three years after the project was announced. Gas production is slated to begin in 2017.

FP1204_Prelude_vs_Buildings_940_ABIt will be the biggest vessel ever sent to sea – but as the Prelude FLNG vessel was launched on Tuesday, plans were already under way for something bigger.

Now, as the partly-built structure floats out of dry dock for the first time, developer Royal Dutch Shell wants to consolidate its advantage as the first mover in Floating Liquefied Natural Gas (FLNG) – an as-yet untried technology for which Prelude will be the flagship.

The oil company’s technicians are designing something even larger and tougher than Prelude, a vessel that will need to last 25 years moored in the Indian Ocean’s “cyclone alley” off Australia’s northwest coast, producing enough gas to supply a city the size of Hong Kong.

Handout/ Royal Dutch Shell
Handout/ Royal Dutch ShellShell's Prelude, FLNG (Floating Liquefied Natural Gas), lauched in Geoje, South Korea.

“Yes we will move bigger and move into more extreme environments,” Bruce Steenson, Shell’s general manager of integrated gas programmes and innovation told Reuters last week. “We are designing a larger facility … That will be the next car off the rails.”

By the numbers

  • More than 600 engineers worked on the facility’s design options
  • 4 soccer fields, laid end to end, would be shorter than the facility’s deck
  • 175 Olympic-sized swimming pools could hold the same amount of liquid as the facility’s storage tanks
  • 50 million litres of cold water will be drawn from the ocean every hour to help cool the natural gas
  • More than 260,000 tonnes of steel will be fabricated and assembled for the facility.  (5X steel used to build the Sydney Harbour Bridge)
  • There will be over 3,000 kilometres of electrical and instrumentation cables on the FLNG facility, the distance from Barcelona to Moscow
  • At peak levels, around 5,000 people will be working on the construction of the FLNG facility in South Korea
  • Another 1,000 will build the turret mooring system, subsea and wells equipment in other locations across the globe
  • It will remain permanently moored at the location for around 20-25 years before needing to dock for inspection and overhaul

Financial Post Staff

 

Prelude, which analysts says may cost over $12 billion to build and which is due to be producing by 2017, is a potential game changer for the oil and gas industry.

If it is an economic success, gas fields worldwide that are too far out to sea and too small to develop any other way could become viable for LNG production.

Making the first-ever FLNG unit even more of a focus as it takes shape in Samsung Heavy Industries’ Geoje shipyard in South Korea, the prototype vessel’s most likely first copy model of similar size will now be for the Browse project – another venture for gas off Australia.

Escalating costs forced backers to dump their original, land-based LNG plant plans, and in September this year, they decided to go ahead with Shell’s FLNG technology instead.

“The Browse structure will be 90 percent the same as Prelude,” Steenson told Reuters on the sidelines of a conference, citing the “design one, build many” mantra Shell hopes will eventually pay off and placate shareholders worried about the firm’s total $45 billion-a-year capital spending bill.

Browse’s developer, Woodside Petroleum, said in October it may use as many as three of the FLNG vessels Shell is developing along with Samsung Heavy and oil and gas engineers Technip.

An even bigger FLNG plant than the ones to be built for Prelude and Browse could make life more interesting for the competition – a wide range of land-based “wannabe” LNG exporters in Canada, Russia and east Africa, all hoping to tap burgeoning Asian gas demand the same way a number of Australian and U.S-based LNG developments will over the coming few years.

Anchored about 200 km (125 miles) off the Australian coast, Prelude will chill the gas to reduce its volume by a factor of 600 and load it on to specialised LNG tankers.

AP Photo/Shell International N.V.
AP Photo/Shell International N.V.In this Nov. 30, 2013 photo provided by Shell on Tuesday, the floating facility “Prelude” lies in the shipyard of Samsung Heavy Industry in Geoje, South Korea.

Prelude will only produce about 3.6 million tonnes a year (mtpa) of LNG along with its 5.3 mtpa of liquids and other hydrocarbons – a fraction of some land-based LNG plants.

Steenson envisages a bigger version could produce far more – giving it economies of scale closer to those to be enjoyed by bigger land-based producing plants such as Gorgon, a 15.6 mtpa plant taking shape on northwest Australia’s coast to tap offshore gas.

Gorgon, led by Shell’s U.S.-based rival Chevron, should be producing in early 2015, well ahead of Prelude, but it is way over budget and now scheduled to cost $52 billion against an original $37 billion. Plans for a land-based Browse plant were cancelled this year as its likely cost reached $45 billion, and as the outlook for global gas demand faltered.

Handout/Royal Dutch Shell
Handout/Royal Dutch ShellAn artist's drawing of the Royal Dutch Shell's future Prelude Floating Liquefied Natural Gas project.

OCEAN ACCESS

Shell has shied away from offering estimates of Prelude’s likely cost, but analysts say FLNG could end up less expensive. They have put the cost of Prelude at $10.8-$12.6 billion.

At 600,000 tonnes with its storage tanks full, Prelude will be vast, but it takes up just a quarter of the space a land-based LNG plant of a similar capacity would occupy because components are stacked on top of each other.

LNG plants need access to the ocean anyway so that LNG tankers can load. FLNG eliminates the need for land purchase and reduces environmental objections. With cooling water straight from the ocean and gas tipped piped straight into LNG tankers, there is no need for long seabed pipelines and jetty construction.

Handout/Royal Dutch Shell
Handout/Royal Dutch ShellShell is building the world’s first floating liquefied natural gas (FLNG) project in Australia, named Prelude, which will be the biggest maritime vessel ever constructed.

Shell’s earliest FLNG designs were made in the 1990s but ended up shelved because of economic recession and technical difficulties. Shell started looking again at the idea in the early 2000s, but it was the discovery of the Prelude field in 2007 – too small and too remote to develop any other way – that gave the technology its first shot in the real world.

A final investment decision was taken to go ahead with 488-metre long Prelude in 2011. Its keel was laid in May this year and two giant sections of its hull built on opposite sides of the harbour were joined together in the summer at Geoje Island.

As was the case with the pioneering design, the bigger FLNG vessel design awaits a suitable gas discovery to match it, Steenson said at the London Business School’s annual global energy summit.

© Thomson Reuters 2013



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business.financialpost.com/2013/12/03/record-breaking-lng-ship-launched-bigger-one-planned/

 

Prelude is definitly an investment pointing to the oceanic future of mankind... it can be seen as a "industrial floating asset" that puts big energy at sea and afloat.

http://concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t43963728/floating-real-estate-building-lots-on-the-water/

 

It has potential to be part of the solution - we need new technologies to solve mankinds biggest problems - and we need solutions fast. - read more :

http://concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t58921987/sustainability-population-growth-consumption-growth-ocean-co/



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Prelude has 120 crew with 5 star accomodation permanent living.

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Other outstanding floating structures:

Rion - Antirion Bridge Pylon, Ekofisk storage tank, Monaco Breakwater, The Valiant Jetti, Troll A, Nkossa Barge, Adriatic LNG, Glomar CSDI, condeep structures, Rofomex Barge, MPU heavy lifter, North Sea Concrete Structures, Geat Belt Bridge, Strategic Port Development Concrete, Ocean colonization News,



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Prelude is a very conservative approach to the concept of a floating base in mid ocean. As it was built in the shipyard of Samsung Heavy Industry in Geoje, South Korea, it is obvious that the human and engineering base present in this shipyard will not allow a step away from "traditional ship engineering". So it was built from marine steel. The engineers where very consient that this is a weak point in the project and taking the ship out of the water for renewal of the "bottom paint" that holds a key function in anti corrosion measures, will be a expensive task. Normal ships are sheduled for bottom paint every 2-3 years. Prelude is featuring a special paint job that is supposed to hold 5 years. But even a bottom maintenance period of 5 years is a "lousy deal" for such a structure and adds a "universe of additional cost"  to its overall operation cost features.

What is desireable is a maintenance free service period at sea of at least a couple of decades. Concrete structures have a maintenance free service period of some 200 years at sea. They are far superior to steel structures in this key aspect.

Structures like Nkossa, and Monaco Breakwater, give a peek what the future will bring on floating technology beyond marine steel building technology.

.  .

Monaco floating breakwater - concrete honeycomb structure - built in Algeciras Spain - delivered over open sea to Monaco. No bottom paint required, maintenance free service lifespan 200 years. It was not built in a "Shipyard" but in a graving pit instead. It contains a parkhouse and a shopping mall.

 Loa 352m / Height 30m / Beam 30m /

- read more here:

http://concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t45732443/monaco-breakwater/

 



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  .

Nkossa concrete honeycomb barge, offshore...



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Condeep honeycomb shell floating structure (baseplate), built in a floating building site on the water. To big for a shipyard.



-- Edited by admin on Wednesday 5th of November 2014 10:09:07 PM

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Heavy concrete shell honeycomb building technology in a few pictures:

. . .

Honeycomb concrete shells go beyond shipbuilding in steel and its obvious technology limits - it offers PERMANENT floating bases at sea that last for centuries....



-- Edited by admin on Wednesday 5th of November 2014 09:05:09 PM

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for better shapes see ramform:
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t51926036/establishing-a-ramform-floating-base-in-the-high-seas-concre/

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Floating concrete honeycomb shells is not a "alternative shipbuilding method" it is concrete engineering adapted to the waterspace that is at its best when traditional steel shipbuilding methods reach their technology limits. This is absolutly the case when "permanent floating islands" are reqired that can operate for centuries...fast rotting steel does not cut it then.



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Interesting project factors: Permanence at sea factor 5 years. Production at sea is cheaper than on land.
Limits of ship technology and project size. Torret mooring pointing bow into wind.Oil-Gas energy technology transition investment. Oceanic resources far from land mid ocean ridge mining.Product transfer to land population centers oceanic economy. Mobilis in Mobili compared to TrollA.
A normal ship is never longer at sea than 5 days pushing this limit to 5 years is definitly a cutting edge thing, although it also shows the “technological limits” of steel ship technology. It was found in this project that floating production is more economic than land based production, this makes Predlude a large scale investment towards a Oceanic economy. The project also shows a “maximum size” for a oceanic unit. Little surprising it is the same size as a big land building. The maximum size is what a big company in big business can handle in engineering and finance. Something bigger than that (city size) will only exist as a CLUSTER development a group up of independent units. The torret mooring is the final answer to the seasteading discussion of “how to anchor” no seamount required no further anchor discussions required. Even on a 500m structure you better have a bow pointing into the wind. Prelude is also interesting as it can be (easy transformation) a piece of infrastructure for a newly upcomming hydrogen / LNG economy that replaces fossil fuels with carbon neutral fuels.Produce hydrogen at sea is in technology reach. It solves the “how to” of transport, and distribution of the product. Finally it shows the feasibility of mid ocean ridge mining operations. All these are good reasons to look at Prelude.


The big five business fields of ocean colonization: | oceanic transport | oceanic energy | oceanic real estate | deep sea mining | oceanic aquaculture |


business development ocean colonization


The four fundamental quests of ocean colonization : | The quest for interference freedom | The quest for mobility | The quest for oceanic resources | The quest for space on the planet |




-- Edited by admin on Sunday 7th of February 2016 08:20:23 PM

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Like any industry project “pointing to the opening of a new frontier” Prelude is a mix of conservative planning and futurist ambition – analyzing the processes, we get a good idea how that kind of project can work in practice where Prelude is “cutting edge” and where “looking backwards”.

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The shortfall of Prelude is defintly that it is built on fast perishing steel shipbuilding technology that was developed to suit shipment needs with ships lasting 15 years - this "short service life technology" is absolutly not suiteable to build the foundations of permanent cities at sea. Concrete honeycomb shell building on contrary is suitable to build foundations for sea cities that last forever and do not require shipyards for bottom paint.

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Floating real estate, floating assets, permanent dwellings at sea:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t43963728/floating-real-estate-building-lots-on-the-water/

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Conserving the bow pointing against the waves and the torret mooring, but vastly improving on the the harbor functions (stern harbor), as well as introducing the concept of "continuing growth of the venture" and rolling stability - things like Prelude will evolve in something like the ramform ocean base :


concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t51926036/establishing-a-ramform-floating-base-in-the-high-seas-concre/



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The frontview of Prelude reveals another tendency. It is big and round obviously built to take the impact of a 30m Draupner Wave. Its roundness that accomodates a big volume points directly to a concept of "maximizing wave impact toughness and space enclosure capacity - a road that leads all the way down to the "ocean sphere concept". A sphere is the geometric form that optimizes low material use with maximum space enclosure, maximum wave impact resistance, maximum pressure resistance. When humans need to place really big living space bubbles in the ocean - the optimized final shape will be a sphere therefore.

Read more about the ocean sphere: http://concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56239662/oceanic-concrete-sphere-habitat/

 



-- Edited by admin on Thursday 6th of November 2014 03:51:13 PM

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. Ramform Banff

Ramform Titan, Ramform Banff, better shapes, broader, more stable, the limit for the shape of Prelude is given by the limit of the drydock it was built in - this makes technology that allows to build on the watersurface instead in a shipyard a key feature for a seastead. The triangular shape is good for relativly small projects that need to combine stability with a high mobility component.



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Adriatic LNG

A similar installation in concrete honeycomb technology.

 



-- Edited by admin on Thursday 6th of November 2014 04:37:41 PM

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.

Concrete honeycomb shell cluster structure built on the watersurface directly - a more advanced technology than Prelude. Floating airport, not only big energy, all kind of business needs floating assets. Construction and element assembly is done outside of shipyards directly on the watersurface.



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The endpoint of the development, floating oceanic cities VENICE style, on similar business models... custering building sized elements together into floating city unit dominating sea trade.

Venice how to do instructions for seasteading.... read more:

http://concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56710025/venice-italy-how-to-do-instructions-for-seasteading-from-his/

The vital importance of "permanent non rotting foundations" is demonstrated clearly by the example of Venice that is slowly sinking now...

 



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The engineers of Nkossa, Monaco Breakwater, Condeep, TrollA, Adriatic LNG, Rofomex... already included this in their "basic technology choice" - Prelude is still "improving bottom paint" what is definitly a expensive "backward looking approach"...



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Floating concrete honeycomb shell building methods - read more here:
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t57819473/floating-concrete-platforms-building-methods/

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Sustainability requires progress concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t58921987/sustainability-population-growth-consumption-growth-ocean-co/

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The big five business fields of ocean colonization: | oceanic transport | oceanic energy | oceanic real estate | deep sea mining | oceanic aquaculture |



The four fundamental quests of ocean colonization : | The quest for interference freedom | The quest for mobility | The quest for oceanic resources | The quest for space on the planet |



Meta Topics:


 



Axes of ocean colonization:
| Main Axes | Plate Seastead | Floating Real Estate | Catamaran concept | Captain Nemo Concept | Floating Breakwater Concept | Submerged Living Space Bubble Concept |


Concepts: / Lens shell pictures overview / / Ramform floating home pictures / / c-shell floating home pictures / / Floating concrete building methods / / shell cluster pictures / / investor proposal list /



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