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Post Info TOPIC: Tubular concrete structures in hydrostatic load


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Tubular concrete structures in hydrostatic load
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ocean colonization next big thing in business / oceanic freedom subdue to nobody /

 

as-concrete.jpg

Concrete submarine pressure hulls in marine environment in use today - proved for decades...

To give anybody who is interested in concrete submarine yacht construction a clear idea what is the status of modern concrete construction in marine ambient i put a couple of photos together to make my point clear that a concrete submarine yacht hull is not a highly experimental issue - In contrary - submarine concrete hulls are in use today all over the world - just in other fields of engineering...
 
So- please guys do not ask any longer questions like: "can concrete float?", "will concrete melt away in sal****er ?", "Will a concrete submarine have cracks and let water trough like a sponge? - just relax and think about the fact why the guys that build the things shown below sleep very well and trust concrete as mankinds most used and tested building material.

Image 1

Statoil's massive concrete based Heidrun platform. The legs of this platform reach over 100m down into the sea. Basicly this floating city is based on the fact that a concrete hull can withstand the ocean pressure stroms and waves all the way from surface to 100m depth during decades - without any alteration.

 

Image2

Inside the concrete leg of a drilling platform. (Troll Platform) Those engineers at the moment of the photo are tecnically "dived at 300 m protected from water pressure by a submarine concrete hull" of collosal dimension that stands vertically instead of horizontally - just flip that platformleg (in your mind) 90 degrees and add a propeller - you have a giant submarine of 24m diameter with 1m wall thickness and 300m length. This is not a new horizon tecnically speaking - it is just to see things from a slightly different angle. By the way my prototype submarine had a wall diameter ratio of almost exactly the double of troll - so it is good for water pressure at 600m including a similar security factor.

 

Image3
Grande Dixence, on the river Dixence in Switzerland, concrete dam. It was built between 1953 and 1961 to a height of 285 m (935 ft). Concrete at the foot of this dam holds a watercolumn of 285m - equivalent of 285m dive depth in a submarine.

 
Image 4
HIBERNIA CANADA, drilling platfrom 105.5m deep diving concrete submarine hull...
 
Image 5
Golf of Corinth Greece, the legs of this bridge go 70m down to the ocean floor. They where built at sea in floating status and do rest on ocean floor with very little force to enable the bridge to move in case of earthquakes - so this bridge is founded on 70m deep dived submarine concrete hulls.
 
Image 6
Seikan Tunnel - This train emerges from the depth of 240 m below the sea of japan where ist was protected during his passage by nothing else than a submarine concrete hull - horizontally in this case...

 

 

 

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1000m depth rating possible for spheres, 500m for tubular concrete structures

...the (study) results demonstrated the feasibility of near neutrally buoyant concrete structures, having an overall safety factor of three, at depths to 3000 feet for spheres and 1500 feet for cylinders. Greater depths are possible if concretes having a compressive strenght greater than 10.000 psi are used or if negativly buoyant structures are designed.

H.H Haynes and R.D. Rail october 1986 first published sept.1976

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Brazil is going to build submerged drilling operations - what kind of technolgy can that be?

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I assume that this will be a tube structure that leads down from the surface similar to Troll A,  combined with a submarine station like the one in the pictures...

Shtokman_-Troll_A_co_26445d.jpgimages?q=tbn:ANd9GcQpisnz5w0I9jWdluKPEXxFwoFH9lrwioM46F-69MKopLIgogaUocean_base7_lg.jpg




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This study shows the feasibility of concrete engineering in depth where the brasilian pre-salt deposits will have to be exploited....

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Paper Number 3011-MS
Title OCEAN IMPLOSION TEST OF CONCRETE (SEACON) CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURE
Authors Roy S. Highberg and Harvey H. Haynes, Civil Engineering Laboratory
Source

Offshore Technology Conference, 2-5 May , Houston, Texas
Copyright 1977. Offshore Technology Conference
Language English
Preview ABSTRACT

An ocean implosion test was conducted on a pressure-resistant concrete cylindrical structure to obtain the depth at implosion. The structure was a reinforced concrete cylinder with hemispherical end caps, twenty feet (6.1 m) in overall length, ten feet (3.05 m) in outside diameter, and 9.5 inches (241 mm) in wall thickness. The structure was near-neutrally buoyant having a positive buoyancy of 12,000 pounds (5.4 Mg) for a hull displacement of 85,000 pounds (38.5 Mg). The implosion depth of the cylinder was 4700 feet (1430 m). A predicted implosion depth, using an empirical design equation based upon past test results, was 16 percent less than the actual implosion depth.

INTRODUCTION

A pressure-resistant, reinforced concrete hull was constructed in 1971 as part of a Seafloor Construction Experiment, SEACON I. The structure was placed on the seafloor at a depth of 600 feet (180 m) for 10 months. Figure 1 shows the SEACON I hull prior to its ocean emplacement. Since its retrieval in 1972, it has been located in the open air about 150 ft. (50 m) from the ocean. In the summer of 1976, the structure was returned to the ocean for an ultimate load test, that is, the structure was lowered into the ocean until implosion.

SPECIMEN DESCRIPTION

The cylindrical structure was assembled from three precast, reinforced concrete sections. The straight cylinder section, 10.1 feet (3080 mm) in outside diameter by 10 feet (3050 mm) in length by 9.5 inches (241 mm) in wall thickness, was fabricated by United Concrete Pipe Corporation. The concrete hemisphere end-closures, 10.1 feet (3080 mm) in outside diameter by 9.5 inches (241 mm) in wall thickness, were fabricated in-house. Tolerances on the sections conformed to concrete pipe standards of not to exceed to ±0.75 inch (19 mm) for the inside diameter or minus 0.5 inch (13 mm) for the wall thickness.

Steel reinforcement in the amount of 0.70% by area was used in both the axial and hoop direction. Reinforcing bars of 0.6 inch (15 mm) diameter were employed throughout the structure. A double circular reinforcement cage was fabricated for each precast section; the concrete cover on the outside and inside reinforcing cage was 1 inch (25 mm). For the cylinder section, hoop rebars had a spacing of 27.25 inches (692 nm) and 31.25 inches (794 mm) for the inside and outside cages respectively.

The hemispherical end-closures were bonded to the cylinder section with an epoxy adhesive, no other attachment besides the epoxy bond was employed (Figure 2). The gap between the mating surfaces of the hemisphere and the cylinder was less than 0.13 inch (3 mm) for 75% of the contact area. Prior to epoxy bonding, the concrete surfaces were prepared by sandblasting and washing with acetone.

Source: http://www.onepetro.org/mslib/servle...011-MS&soc=OTC

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Maybe Phil Nuyttens vision of Vent Base Alpha will come true sooner than expected...

FF_204_atlantis1_f.jpgmineralresources_02.gif

Dive expert envisions Mars-like colony off coast of B.C.

By Karen Dyer - Business Edge
Published: 02/05/2004 - Vol. 1, No. 3

Underwater technology guru Phil Nuytten likes to think big - and deep.

When one of Canada´s premier diving pioneers and inventors looks to the future of his industry, he talks knowledgeably about deep sea diving and submersibles, but it is his newest project that really makes his eyes gleam.

"I have a plan for an underwater Mars-like colony. It will essentially be powered by the heat vents on the ocean floor and will house people to work on an undersea mining operation out of the heat vents. I´ve spent the last couple of years talking to people all around the world about this concept, and I´m ready to see it happen. I call it Vent Base Alpha."

Talking with Nuytten is like speaking to Jules Verne, with a difference. While Verne created his futuristic worlds with words, Nuytten shapes his from high-tech plastic and metals. And unlike Verne´s, most of Nuytten´s dreams have actually come to pass.

The underwater technology world is a closely-knit community and Nuytten is a major player in Canada and around the globe. He is the founder and CEO of Nuytco Research Ltd. and Can-Dive Construction Ltd. Oceaneering International Inc., a company he helped found in the 1960s that is currently trading just short of a billion dollars per year on the NASDAQ.

Another one of Nuytten´s companies, Hollywood Underwater Ltd., has been involved in the production of more than 130 movies, including a couple that have his own inventions as the starring characters. The Abyss, Titanic - just about every major production with an aquatic theme has used equipment and manpower from his company.

But research is still his first love. He sees Nuytco as the armourer for deep sea oceanic researchers and divers from around the world.

"We´re like the people who live under the stairs. Nobody knows we´re here, but there is very little in our society that doesn´t involve underwater work," Nuytten says. "The bridges that you cross every morning had their footings placed by deep-sea divers. Trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific cables are all maintained by undersea vehicles. Docks and dams are inspected and repaired by divers. There´s a tremendous amount of underwater work."

That work load has increased exponentially with the advent of fibre-optic networks, often laid off shore. Nuytten notes that the city of Victoria is soon to be the northern terminus for a web of cable that runs all the way from Oregon. This web contains a series of sensors on the sea floor, broadcasting back a range of data regarding everything from seismic information to fish stocks to undersea mining.

"Victoria has gone about this quietly, but in a big way," he says. "They are setting up a marine observatory centre and a huge inner harbour development all devoted to oceanic research."

Nuytten sees British Columbia as a world leader in oceanic expertise. "Vancouver is sometimes called Submarine City because it is such a hot-bed of excellence in undersea technology," he says.

Colin Heartwell, Director of Policy and Analysis for the Canadian Manufacturers and Exporters Association, notes that while it is only considered a sub-set of Canada´s miscellaneous manufacturing exports, "the federal government has identified ocean technology as a priority of the current Innovation Strategy."

Starting the first dive shop in Vancouver as a 15-year-old, Nuytten worked after school and weekends to establish his business. Once he got his feet wet in the industry, there was no looking back.

After years of salvage diving up and down the coast, in 1979 Nuytten set out to fill what he saw as a gaping hole in the industry - the need for an individual dive suit capable of achieving depths to which only submersibles can descend.

After years of intense research, in 1987 Nuytten was the recipient of the Canadian Award for Business Excellence for the result of his labours. His invention was called the NEWTSUIT, and was the first one-atmosphere diving suit, allowing the wearer unprecedented dexterity and mobility. He formed a manufacturing company called International Hardsuits, and since then, the NEWTSUIT has found its way into almost every navy in the world.

Nuytten could have rested on his laurels, but once again he looked to the depths. The technology behind the NEWTSUIT was changing, and the suits themselves were highly expensive to produce.

After losing International Hardsuits in a hostile takeover to an American firm, he turned his attention to producing single-pilot submersibles called DEEPWORKERS and a lighter and cheaper dive suit called the EXOSUIT.

He´s just completed a lucrative five-year contract with National Geographic in their "Sustainable Seas" project. And last week, Nuytco sent two submarines and five men down to Texas to train marine scientists, underwater technicians and astronauts from the Canadian Space Agency and Johnson Space Centre in the fine art of piloting these tiny machines.

The training takes place in a huge pool, 150 feet wide, 250 feet long and 50 feet deep. This is Nuytco´s second training trip to the Texas-sized swimming pool. The first session, held last July, gave a similar training experience to marine and coral reef scientists from the U.S. and Mexico.

The Canadian astronaut team is led by Dr. Dave Williams, who in past years has had previous neutral buoyancy training in the NEWTSUIT. After the pilot training session, members of the Nuytco team have been invited to participate in the underwater neutral buoyancy laboratory at the Johnson Space Center, where Williams will be working in full space gear in the submerged space shuttle simulator.

Nuytten himself gave up deep sea diving years ago after losing one too many friends to the dangers of the ocean, but he donned a wetsuit in Texas to shoot underwater videos of the training session.

Training sessions like these allow Nuytco to continue to focus on developing the small NEWTSUBS and DEEPWORKER submersibles that Nuytten sees as the most direct route to undersea development and, ultimately, to Vent Base Alpha. Nuytten calls Vent Base Alpha a "totally new concept," and has spent the last couple of years selling it to the international diving community.

His idea is built around utilizing the deep sea vents that pepper the ocean floor around Vancouver Island. These vents are essentially hot, mineral-rich water flowing out onto the ocean floor through volcanic lava between the tectonic plates upon which Vancouver Island floats.

The hot, fluid smoke that emerges from the vents is made up of dissolved minerals. According to Nuytten, the more than 500 degree temperature differential between the water and the material emerging from the vents creates an enormous opportunity to generate power. "When you have that kind of free, unlimited power potential, you can literally set up an artificial sun," he says.

He visualizes a colony under a giant dome, with an enormous generator utilizing this water power to extract oxygen from the water, grow crops and sustain life support systems on the ocean floor. Miners who lived in this world underneath the sea would then cool the water to selectively drop out the metals present in the vent smoke according to their specific gravity. He sees opportunities for many metals, including molybdenum and most particularly cobalt, plentiful in the vents around the west coast.

Science fiction, perhaps? When Phil Nuytten, 1992 Order of B.C. recipient, inventor of the military submarine rescue system REMORA, the NEWTSUIT, the EXOSUIT and the DEEPWORKER submersible is involved, you can be sure he´s not out of his league.

http://www.businessedge.ca/article.cfm/newsID/5152.cfm




-- Edited by tornado on Thursday 22nd of September 2011 09:02:14 PM

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Video Submarine Pressure Hulls



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Tubular concrete structures in hydrostatic load
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Reading List:

Basic Concrete Engineering for Builders with CDROM / Design of Concrete Structures / Strength Design for Reinforced - Concrete Hydraulic Structures Engineering Manual on CD / Design of Offshore Concrete Structures / Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures, Second Edition (Civil Engineering - Advisors) / The Dock Manual: Designing/Building/Maintaining / Theory and Design of Concrete Shells / Thin Shell Concrete Structures / design procedures of reinforced concrete shell structures (JGJT 22-98) / Understanding Structures / Concrete Planet: The Strange and Fascinating Story of the World's Most Common Man-made Material / Concrete Construction Manual (Construction Manuals (englisch)) / Large Wind Turbines: Design and Economics / Dynamics of Offshore Structures / Offshore Technology in Civil Engineering / Design of Offshore Concrete Structures / Concrete in the Marine Environment (Modern Concrete Technology)

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Concrete Floating Structures

Surface Floating Concepts:

The axes of ocean colonization / floating real estate building lots on the water / Plate Seastead - Plate Floating Element for Ocean Colonization / Catamaran Concrete Floating Elements - Base for Ocean Living / Floating Concrete Breakwater Marina / Ocean colonization how to get there / Ramform ship island as ocean base mobile stable scaleable / small honeycomb floating concrete structures in cartagena / Seabreaks for dampening colossal ocean waves / Ocean colonization technology / Ocean colonization company / Oustanding floating concrete structures / ocean colonization general considerations / Interesting projects for ocean colonization / Aquaculture, business, trade, mininig, energy, salvage, making money afloat /

Submerged Concepts:

The captain nemo float out - seasteading / Sub movement finished - Submarine Yacht / Is submarine living space expensive? / concrete pressure vessel / Concrete submarine project / submarine yacht / concrete submarine yacht supporter club / Submerged living space bubble concept basics / Exotic Submerged Bubble Hotel / sea orbiter / Current Turbine Concrete Hull /



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-- Edited by admin on Saturday 11th of June 2016 02:21:24 PM

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yook3.com

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Why oceanic business is the next big thing to come:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

Ocean Colonization, Picture Gallery, Concepts:

imulead.com/tolimared/concretesubmarine/picturegallery/concept/

The Captain Nemo Lifestyle:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t43942461/the-captain-nemo-float-out-seasteading/

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Floating concrete structures building methods
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t57819473/floating-concrete-platforms-building-methods/

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Get a foothold in ocean colonization:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t49529137/oceanic-frontier-develpment-investment-foothold-in-ocean-col/

The Captain Nemo Lifestyle:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t43942461/the-captain-nemo-float-out-seasteading/

Why oceanic business is the next big thing to come:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

Ocean sphere fish farming:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t55433095/ocean-sphere-the-next-wave-of-sustainable-fish-farming/

Ocean colonization gallery:

imulead.com/tolimared/concretesubmarine/picturegallery/concept/

Big things have small beginnings ocean colonization transition, potential:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t58002383/big-things-have-small-beginnings-transition-capability-key-f/

Sustainability on Planet Earth only the oceans can safe us:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t58921987/sustainability-population-growth-consumption-growth-ocean-co/

Free spirited oceanic lifestyle global mobility:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t58935854/subdue-to-nobody/

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