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Biography of Li Hongzhang
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Li Hongzhang praised the Western education system, believing that "the way to cultivate talents in Western schools is rigorous and rigorous, which is far beyond the reach of sergeants". He saw that in the West, "when military ships are about to be abandoned, they must be created by the Navy School, and when land camps are about to be abandoned, they must be created by the Military Academy, so the military strategy is abundant and the nature is used to it." He asserted, "Unless we make the best use of the enemy's strong points, we will not be able to kill the enemy. Therefore, when we talk about military equipment today, we should treat the enemy in his own way. If we rely on the courage of blood and spirit and the carelessness of talent to deal with a strong enemy, it will be difficult to win in the end." (2) Based on the need of training new officers and building the Beiyang Navy and Army, he imitated the West and established the Tianjin Navy School and the Military School in 1880 and 1885 respectively. The Tianjin Navy School studied Chinese learning, Western learning, civil affairs, and military affairs, and the Tianjin Military Academy studied astronomy, geography, Gezhi, surveying and mapping, mathematics, and the new method of the fort camp. It also practiced the horse team, the foot team, and marching array,75 smart board, dividing and combining offensive and defensive methods. It also studied the classics and history to fill the foundation. These two schools have trained a group of "liberal arts and science, extensive Western learning" for the Beiyang Navy and Army. ③ General assistant. In addition, Li Hongzhang followed the example of the West and successively established Weihai Navy School, Lushun Torpedo School, Tianjin Telegraph School and Tianjin Western Medicine School. Compared with the schools established in other provinces, the schools established by Li Hongzhang at that time not only had advantages in quantity and category, but also had pioneering and exemplary significance. Li Hongzhang found that the source and quality of the students in the school were directly affected by the correct path of the Qing court's official appointment. He said, "Apart from school and boat training, there is really no place where a general can be trained.". However, the imperial court did not seem to attach great importance to the matter,65 inch smart board, and the ministers were more demanding with their ordinary achievements, and those who aspired to make progress in the family refused to go to school. (1) Worried about this, he had no choice but to follow the reality and strive to "lay equal stress on the right path" for the school staff. Or "enter the body from Kejia" to reverse this unfavorable situation. In 1885, the Qing court decided to "give priority to the great navy". In response to the imperial edict, Li Hongzhang pointed out that it was necessary to "select and select talents" for the formation and training of naval forces, and suggested that the school personnel should "take the lead, lay equal stress on those who have completed their studies and on the right path, strictly follow the method of assessment, so that those who are greedy can be dismissed". ②。 In 1887, the Qing court decided to promote "the quality of seeking talent" and "quantity". Li Hongzhang immediately went to school and strived to "enter the body from Kejia" for the school staff. That year, Chen Xiuying, the imperial censor, requested that the number of people who had studied mathematics in the Ming Dynasty should be given to those who had studied mathematics in Kejia. Yi Yan and others believe that "the example of the test can not be easily changed, and the character of seeking talent seems to be measurable for promotion", suggesting that the provincial school administration in the annual examination, the prospective supervisor of mathematics, in addition to the main field is still trying to use the four books, electronic board for classroom ,smart boards for conference rooms, scriptures, poetry strategy, the ancient field of another mathematics topic, candidates can be familiar with the algorithm, that is, submitted to the Premier's Yamen for re-registration, in the year of the provincial examination, candidates go to the Premier's Yamen in person. "Try to investigate things, calculate and machine manufacturing, naval and military law, ship artillery and mines or public law treaties, and historical events of various countries", and select those who are well-versed in them and send them to Shuntian Township for examination. (1) Li Hongzhang: Hong Wenqing, Minister of Restoration of the Imperial Commissioner of Germany, Russia and Austria, Letters of Li Wenzhong, Volume 12. (2) Li Hongzhang, The Creation of Military Academy, Li Wenzhong Gong Quan Shu, Zougao, Volume 53, page 43. (3) Yu Siyi: Diary of a Building Boat, Volume 1. (1) Li Hongzhang, Governor of Zhili Province, July 2, the Eleventh Year of Guangxu, Westernization Movement (2), pp. 565-569. ② Same as above. If the number of people in more than 20, in the rural examination papers with the words "Suanxue", together with the field examination, not another Suanxue topic. The examination paper is compared with the example of the official examination paper of the big province, and every 20 students are given an extra one, and "the combination of liberal arts and science is the joint examination". However, although the number of volumes is large, the number of people in the pilot test should not exceed 3, "to show the limit". As for the general examination, because there is no other example of numbering, all the candidates in the middle examination of mathematics "still belong to the big size, and take the test together with the local people in each province, and take the middle by the text." In their view, "this is the search for unique skills, still do not change the method of winning the imperial examination, seems to be one of the ways to encourage talent." ①。 The policies and measures put forward by Yi Yan and others were approved by Cixi. Li Hongzhang attempted to set an example for the military students and teaching staff of the Tianjin Navy to strive for the right path of Kejia, and specially said: Although the establishment of the Cha School is for the sake of cultivating talents, it is necessary to start with mathematics and study classics and history. Among them, there are also those who are well versed in arts and science and are eager to go sightseeing. If they can enter the body from Kejia in another day, they will have both civil and military skills, and they will not be chosen to resist aggression against Kancheng. In the year of the provincial examination, except for the provincial scholars and general arithmetic scholars, who will be sent by the provincial school ministers to take the examination, all the military students and teaching staff of the Tianjin Navy will be selected by the nearest school minister to send them to the Premier's Office, waiting for the examination to be recorded and sent, and to take the provincial examination as a whole, so as to encourage them to enter widely. If you are lucky enough to get it, it will still be transferred to the school and the navy army, so as to achieve practical results. (2) Li's proposal was granted by decree. Therefore,smartboards for business, in 1888, the teachers and students of Tianjin Navy Military Academy were able to participate in the Shuntian provincial examination together with the students of Shanghai Guang Dialect Academy and Tongwen Academy. This provincial examination was the first time in Chinese history that Western learning and middle school were tested together, which broke through a gap in the barrier of selecting scholars by stereotyped writing. hsdsmartboard.com



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