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Post Info TOPIC: Draupner new year wave and its consequences for seasteading


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Draupner new year wave and its consequences for seasteading
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The Draupner new year wave was the first registered freak wave (rogue wave) registered in history. It came out of nothing in a 12m wave ambient and had some 25m.

 

The Draupner wave or New Year's wave was the first rogue wave to be detected by a measuring instrument, occurring at the Draupner platform in the North Sea off the coast of Norway on January 1, 1995. Prior to this measurement, such freak waves were known to exist only through anecdotal evidence provided by those who had encountered them at sea.

Minor damage was inflicted on the platform during this event, confirming the validity of the reading made by a downwards-pointing laser sensor. In an area with significant wave height of approximately 12 metres (39 ft), a freak wave with a maximum wave height of 25.6 metres (84 ft) occurred (peak elevation was 18.5 metres (61 ft)). Engineer Paul Taylor estimated the Draupner wave was a one in 200,000 wave.

source:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draupner_wave



extreme waves



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draupner wave video



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ships in big waves
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Draupner new year wave and its consequences for seasteading
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.



-- Edited by admin on Thursday 27th of October 2011 07:48:14 AM

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Sailing yachts are designed to be able to take a "rollover with mastloss" and survive that kind of event - but - can we build a seastead that way? - i doubt it - so the only way to make a small seastead (family house size) safe and comfortable in open ocean is to make a submersible bubble habitat. Anything that floats permanently on the ocean surface and is less than 100m diameter will be overwashed and shortly submerged under certain conditions ANYWAY.

So it is better designed to live with being submerged.

. images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQBFAxBTOYz3LmKbgcpmbASBDQDNx1y3lYDPBgMRuetk0LqRasH. images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRbV8yKHd2D6nrpX4fhlOMP_kt9myxXhjUcHUocO3LHj4jNMTk2sA .

Only structures of city size with seawalls and breakwaters that can handle 30m waves can survive draupner events on the surface without taking severe damage. Stuctures the size of a ship like the Caledonean Star and the Bremen (which both took draupner events over the bow with heavy damage all bridge windows kicked in) are obviously still too small and not tough enough.

This sets the bar for structure and size for a seastead very very high and pushes the squaremeter price up a lot.

 



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literally any structure at sea up to bulk carrier size gets overwashed
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This video shows how big waves overwash a bulk carrier.



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Conclusion - a structure that pretends to give shelter and sea-sickness free comfort in open ocean must be SIGNIFICANTLY bigger than the ships and structures shown in that video - 3 times wave size would be a good point to start - this can only be performed by "City sized" structures.

Smaller structures (like single family seasteads) must go for other strategies for being safe and comfortable in open ocean than form stability. Yachts do outrun  bad weather or stay in port - that is one successful strategy - but not suitable for the purpose of ocean colonization which consists in "staying out there".

Spar structures will work if they lift the critical parts some 60m above the ocean surface (see Siemens wind turbine) - for housing this will not work either as it creates infeasible cost per squaremeter living space prices - (you need a lot of expensive structure to lift a living space squaremeter 60m above the water surface).

It is a safety factor problem. North Sea Oil structures have been designed with a safety of 2 under the presumption of the linear wave model that predicts a wave height maximum of 15m - the structures have a "design wave height of 30m so they are a factor 2 "at the safe side" in any imaginable sea conditon according the linear model. That is good engineering practice. Now that the non linear model permits the existance of 30m waves (or even higher) the "correct safety factor" would call for a design wave height of 60m to stay on the safe side with a safety factor two in any imaginable sea condition. But this pushes the projects "out of the range of feasibility".

troll A

The whole concept of "lifting structures on stilts out of the wave impact zone" is in question now. A wind turbine can afford to loose a blade or two in a wave impact every couple of years - but a seastead needs to offer safety to its inhabitants inspite of the possibility of such impacts...

 

  .

So it may well be that the submerged living space bubble is the only feasible way to build small comfortable structures in the high seas. Have you ever thought about the fact that mother nature never developed surface floating plants and surface swimming animals. The ocean surface is a desert for good reasons. All animals and plants that colonized the open sea do it BELOW the surface.

Engineering hydrostatic water pressure into a living space concept is easy - engineering the possible structural load of a Draupner wave is near to impossible - and extremly expensive. The ocean surface is not really a good place to live on - the hydrosphere that embarks 99% of the planets living space volume is a much easier manageable ambient.

Of course a floating city of the size below can handle a Draupner Event.

 

But small structures (speak smaller than a ship) should go submersible to be on the safe side.

In general "condo on stilts" concepts are gone now as a feasible option. House on platform also gone. Only impact resistant shells with a bow structure like the ramform concept can stand non linear tail events.

 

 

 

The new face of seasteading in the area of the non linear model is concrete shell, either giant, impact resistant with bow, or submerged right away.



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This happens to structures that are smaller than the wave when staying on the surface instead of diving under the wave - as a surfer does when he does NOT want to "take the wave"... (check the surfer concept of duck diving)

so being bigger than the wave is of essence... or if you are smaller than the wave instead of taking it and try to ride over its crest - dive trough it... the wave piercing bow is a outcome of that...



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Riding the wave - if you stay on the surface the wave will accelerate you - this is "desireable status" for a surfer - but it is a "not desireable case for the "rolled over sail yacht" in the "freak wave video collection" below.

 

Surfers have found out how you can handle the way the waves handles you - they either ride the wave crest or they "duckdive" trough it.

This paints the picture how small sized oceanic structures should take freak waves - they should go under the wave crest in the sense of duckdiving - which includes a short phase of being submerged while the wavecrest goes over you.

 

Duckdiving the wave if you go below the wave goes over you without impacting you. The way how surfers handle the waves to avoid their impact is a model how "submersible boats" can survive waves that surface ships can't survive.

.

make sure that your structure does handle a really big wave in "duckdiving mode" - not in "riding down the wavecrest" mode - the difference in damage will be paramount... The freak wave collection video below shows how a sailing yacht takes a wave crest in "surfmode" and gets rolled over with mastloss. - A clearly "not desireable way" to take a big wave with your family home.

It is obvious that you do not need to go 500 feet down to avoid the impact of the wave crest  a few feet of depth will do the job.

read more about how deep must you dive to avoid wave hazard



-- Edited by admin on Saturday 23rd of June 2012 08:30:25 PM



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The Wave That Changed Science
Monday, March 03, 2008 - Ran Levi

Over the centuries many sailors described seeing huge ocean waves, monsters of the seas that towered to heights of 30 meters and more. Those Rogue Waves, as they were called, appeared suddenly and rammed into the unfortunate vessel. Scientists tended to ignore these stories. They considered them to be legends, fairy tales that sailors tell each other to pass the time on long journeys. They had good reason to doubt these stories: contemporary mathematical models predicted that the biggest possible ocean storm wave could be twelve to fifteen meters high.

But those tales, passed from one sailor to another in pubs or late at night on the ship's bridge, told also of a massive ‘hole’ in the water, tens of meters deep. This hole was followed by a nearly-vertical wall of water - a wave so steep no ship could 'climb' it. According to the stories, when a ship was hit by such a wave it usually drowned within seconds.

For a long time, scientists thought their understanding of ocean waves was reasonably good. The way they saw it, the mathematical models that were developed for other kinds of waves, like sound waves and electromagnetic waves, could be applied to waves in the ocean. And why should these models not be appropriate? A wave is just a wave, after all - an interference making its way from point A to point B, energy being transported from one place to another. Based on these mathematical models, scientists believed a thirty meter may exist, but is likely to occur only once every thirty-thousand years. Thus, Rogue Waves reports were placed in the same category sea-dragon stories, Bermuda Triangle oddities, and mermaid tales.

A single wave that crashed on a tall oil-rig in the northern Atlantic Ocean shocked the foundations of these scientific models.

In 1978, the merchant ship ‘Munich’ set sail on a regular voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, transporting goods from Germany to the United States. The Munich was the jewel in the German merchant fleet's crown; it was over two hundred meters long and equipped with the best technology money could buy. No storm or hurricane could possibly harm the Munich.

At 3 A.M, on December 12th, 1978, a Greek ship received an S.O.S message from the Munich. An emergency task force of almost a hundred ships and planes combed the Atlantic, but no trace of the Munich was ever found.

The Munich’s disappearance was a great mystery. The weather had been rough, but should not have posed any serious danger to the large vessel. The matter became even more mysterious when the search party located an empty life boat that had belonged to the Munich, floating in the water. Bent and broken pins on the life boat’s side indicated that the boat was not purposefully lowered to from the ship by the Munich’s crew, but was thrown over-board as a result of a massive impact. However, the Munich’s life boats usually hanged twenty meters above the water's surface! What tremendous force could have reached that height, knocking the raft out of place and possibly sinking the entire ship?

The formal investigation team concluded that the Munich drowned as a result of an unknown weather-related event, but many suspected that a Rogue Wave was the real culprit. Since no proof was available, this view was never adopted by the authorities.

This all changed on New Year’s Eve, 1995.

The North Sea, off the coast of Norway, was angry that day, my friends. Hurricane-strong winds were blowing and twelve meter waves crashed on the Draupner oil rig. The rig’s workers were not worried, because the rig was designed to withstand hurricanes. At roughly 3 p.m. that afternoon, the order was given that all personnel must enter the rig’s structure- no one volunteered to stay outside and watch the ocean.

For this reason, no one saw the monstrous wave that hit the Draupner oil rig at 3:20 pm. The wave did not harm the rig itself (the platform was high above the water), but was recorded by a special laser-based wave-height detector. The rig’s engineers were shocked when they went over the detector's logs. The wave was almost 20 meters high. It was practically impossible- this kind of wave should only occur once every ten thousand years. Yet the laser detector was accurate to within an inch and worked flawlessly. The wave’s existence was undeniable.

Where then did the Draupner Wave, as it came to be known, come from?

It could not have been a Tsunami wave, since Tsunami waves grow large only when approaching land. It could not have been a Tidal Bore, a wave caused by tidal forces, since these only occur near the shore and are a much more localized phenomena.

It became obvious that a new theory must be developed to explain Rogue Waves. The first stage of every theory development is searching for facts. When the researchers looked back at all the data collected from sea buoys and ocean-waves radars, they were amazed at what they found. Instead of one report of a giant wave every thirty thousand years, Rogue Waves seemed to occur very often. Why, then, did ships encounter them only rarely? The answer was obvious- Rogue Waves exist for several minutes only, and disappear almost as soon as they are formed.

It was now also possible to open the history books and re-examine past mysteries in the light of the new knowledge. One such historical enigma is the ‘Flannen Island Mystery;’

In 1899, a new lighthouse was built on a remote group of islands off the coast of Scotland, some 20 miles from the mainland. Three light house keepers were stationed at the lighthouse, and cared for the structure.

A year after the light house was erected, a supply ship came to the islands- as it did every week- to replenish the keepers' food supply. The ship's crew found the light house was empty. Its three keepers had vanished almost without a trace. Upon examining the scene, the ship's crew found that coats had been left behind, and a chair had fallen in the kitchen. These were considered as clues that hinted to a sudden catastrophe.

An examination of the lighthouse itself revealed damage to a metal box some thirty meters above the water's surface, a railing that was bent beyond repair, and a huge rock that was somehow moved from its place.

The official examiner speculated that a giant wave had hit the lighthouse- but since it was considered impossible that a wave this size might exist, alternative theories were invented to explain the men's sudden disappearance. Some speculated a fight had broken out between the keepers, others suggested murder, suicide, abduction by foreign agents, and even abduction by aliens- everything was possible.

It is now believed that two of the keepers were working near the water, when the third spotted a Rogue Wave approaching the island. He ran outside to warn the others, not stopping to pick up the fallen chair or take his coat with him, but the monstrous wave washed all three.

A different, even more famous case involved the ‘Queen Mary’, a giant passenger ship. During the second world-war it was used to transport troops from the U.S. to Europe. In December 1942, with sixteen-thousand soldiers on board, it was hit by a huge wave. This monster wave, almost thirty meters high, crashed into the ship’ side and caused it to reach a 52 degrees tilt.

The ship slowly straightened, and barely managed to sail back to harbor. The engineers who examined the damage remarked that had the ship tilted by just three more degrees it would have capsized, killing everyone on board. This incident had the potential to end so tragically that it would have made the Titanic disaster seem negligible.

Using satellite imagery, it became obvious the there are certain areas around the globe that are more prone to Rogue Wave activity. Places where ocean currents meet waves that travel at opposite directions are especially dangerous. Those areas were quickly removed from shipping lanes listings.

But Rogue Waves occur in other places as well, places that have no strong currents or high waves. Today, the scientists' opinions remain divided as to the source of these waves. Generally speaking, two kinds of theories are competing for supremacy: linear theories versus non-linear theories.

Linear theories explain Rogue Waves as the additive sum of two smaller waves: that is, when a ten meters high wave ‘climbs’ upon another ten meter high wave, we get a single monster wave that reaches a height of twenty meters. For example, it is well know that high frequency waves travel slower over the ocean than low frequency waves. It is possible for a slow frequency series of waves to ‘chase’ and overtake a higher frequency group of waves, and 'climb' over them.

Critics of the linear theories say that these theories can only explain how under a very specific set of circumstances a Rogue Wave is produced. These are circumstances that occur very rarely, and can not account for the high number of Rogue Waves that have been reported over the years.

Non-linear theories take a very different approach. They try to explain Rogue Waves using equations and ideas taken from quantum mechanics. Schrodinger’s Equation, for example, is a famous equation used to explain and predict the behavior of electrons in orbit around the atom’s nucleus. It does so by treating the electrons as waves traveling around the atom. A version of this equation, known as the Non-Linear Schrodinger Equation, is highly effective when used in optics, and - as it turns out- in explaining Rogue Waves. According to this equation, an ocean wave might start to ‘suck’ energy from nearby waves, gaining height at the expense of the surrounding waves. This could account for the ‘hole in the water’ phenomenon reported by sailors who survived encounters with Rogue Waves.

As mentioned above, all Rogue Wave theories are still very much a work in progress. Technological advances might have given us the impression that we have managed to ‘tame’ the sea, that our huge ships and sophisticated radars have made the voyage over the ocean safe, almost boring.

However, nature proves time and again that we are neither as smart nor strong as we like to think we are. At least for the near future, sailors still need to keep their binoculars close at hand, and should keep scanning the horizon for Rogue Waves, and maybe for other sea monsters science has yet to recognize.

http://thefutureofthings.com/column/1005/the-wave-that-changed-science.html

. . .



-- Edited by admin on Friday 17th of February 2012 09:18:30 PM



-- Edited by admin on Friday 17th of February 2012 09:20:08 PM

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The big five business fields of ocean colonization: | oceanic transport | oceanic energy | oceanic real estate | deep sea mining | oceanic aquaculture |




The four fundamental quests of ocean colonization : | The quest for interference freedom | The quest for mobility | The quest for oceanic resources | The quest for space on the planet |




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Reading List:

Basic Concrete Engineering for Builders with CDROM / Design of Concrete Structures / Strength Design for Reinforced - Concrete Hydraulic Structures Engineering Manual on CD / Design of Offshore Concrete Structures / Construction of Marine and Offshore Structures, Second Edition (Civil Engineering - Advisors) / The Dock Manual: Designing/Building/Maintaining / Theory and Design of Concrete Shells / Thin Shell Concrete Structures / design procedures of reinforced concrete shell structures (JGJT 22-98) / Understanding Structures / Concrete Planet: The Strange and Fascinating Story of the World's Most Common Man-made Material / Concrete Construction Manual (Construction Manuals (englisch)) / Large Wind Turbines: Design and Economics / Dynamics of Offshore Structures / Offshore Technology in Civil Engineering / Design of Offshore Concrete Structures / Concrete in the Marine Environment (Modern Concrete Technology)

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Freak wave collection including sail yacht rollover.




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Caledonean Star Freak Wave encounter - a ship going down 45% angle and diving like a submarine...



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Why smaller ships should be built to "can submerge" construction criteria... in certain conditions they will need that...




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. This is a "normal wave" - not a tsunami !

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Surfing the Monster



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This picture - rouge wave against oil tanker - gives a good feeling what kind of size and structural toughness required, we are talking about when talking about a breakwater to dampen oceanic waves.

There has always been cases of ships that "disappear" without a emergency call. Since the existence of Draupner Waves is becoming a scientific fact - and the abundance of camaras gives us documents about those events - things become much clearer.

A seastead would face such a event up to 4 times a year....

Maybe we should part from the fact that ANY structure at sea should be prepared to get overwashed and pushed to be a "submarine" several times during its design life.

So the submarine living space bubble might not be a "exotic approach to ocean colonization" but the only really feasible approach to permanent ocean colonization as long as the floating structure is smaller than "city sized" - so that the wave in that picture would still be a "manageable wave" compared to the structure.

This oil tanker is obviously ballasted so he takes that wave in "duck diving mode" - and this is probably the only reason why it is not broken in 2 pieces by the hog forces in that situation.





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why all structures intended to stay on open ocean should be designed for "wave overwash" and short phases of "being submerged"

So if you look at it from a practical angle - for a oceangoing design - submerged, semisubmerged, is not a "exotic or outlandish design" it is a basic design need - required for basic safety reasons.  You may postulate that anything that is below 500m size is better designed to be submarine. At least in occacions - so why not go submarine in first place. Submarine yachts, submarine tankers, submarine habitats , submarine oil production units - all has been suggested already.



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Concrete Floating Structures

Surface Floating Concepts:

The axes of ocean colonization / floating real estate building lots on the water / Plate Seastead - Plate Floating Element for Ocean Colonization / Catamaran Concrete Floating Elements - Base for Ocean Living / Floating Concrete Breakwater Marina / Ocean colonization how to get there / Ramform ship island as ocean base mobile stable scaleable / small honeycomb floating concrete structures in cartagena / Seabreaks for dampening colossal ocean waves / Ocean colonization technology / Ocean colonization company / Oustanding floating concrete structures / ocean colonization general considerations / Interesting projects for ocean colonization / Aquaculture, business, trade, mininig, energy, salvage, making money afloat /

Submerged Concepts:

The captain nemo float out - seasteading / Sub movement finished - Submarine Yacht / Is submarine living space expensive? / concrete pressure vessel / Concrete submarine project / submarine yacht / concrete submarine yacht supporter club / Submerged living space bubble concept basics / Exotic Submerged Bubble Hotel / sea orbiter / Current Turbine Concrete Hull /




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yook3.com

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concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t43942461/the-captain-nemo-float-out-seasteading/

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Get a foothold in ocean colonization:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t49529137/oceanic-frontier-develpment-investment-foothold-in-ocean-col/

The Captain Nemo Lifestyle:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t43942461/the-captain-nemo-float-out-seasteading/

Why oceanic business is the next big thing to come:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

Ocean sphere fish farming:

concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t55433095/ocean-sphere-the-next-wave-of-sustainable-fish-farming/

Ocean colonization gallery:

imulead.com/tolimared/concretesubmarine/picturegallery/concept/

The Quest for Interference Freedom.
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

The Quest for Mobility.
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

The Quest for Oceanic Resources.
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

The Quest for space on the Planet.
concretesubmarine.activeboard.com/t56680633/the-reasons-why-oceanic-business-is-the-next-big-thing-to-co/

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